Understanding epidemiology forecasting and the impact of data sources on accuracy

This article explores the relationship between epidemiological forecasting and data sources, highlighting the importance of data in generating accurate forecast predictions. Additionally, the increased availability of real-world data and advancements in technology such as artificial intelligence (AI), are discussed in relation to their potential impact on forecasting accuracy.

Factors Affecting Forecast Quality and Accuracy:

The accuracy of epidemiological forecasts depends on several key factors. One of the primary determinants is the availability of data, which can vary based on the disease and the country under consideration. Countries with extensive population studies and research, like the United States, tend to have more data available, while data from emerging markets may be limited. The specificity of the epidemiological model also affects accuracy, with more granular models requiring more accurate and specific data.

To compensate for data limitations, it is crucial to combine different data sources. Epidemiological data, patient records, claims data, and market research can provide complementary insights. By integrating these diverse data sources, forecasters can obtain a more comprehensive understanding of disease dynamics and patient populations.

Importance of Epidemiological Models:

Epidemiological models are essential for understanding the underlying drivers of diseases and predicting market dynamics. While sales-based models provide insights into current market trends, epidemiological models delve deeper, highlighting the factors contributing to observed treatment patterns. These models help explain the changes in patient populations, identify key drivers behind market size, and allow for scenario planning based on potential future changes.

The three model types – epi-based or cross-sectional, opportunity-based, and patient flow modelling – each offer unique insights and benefits in understanding disease dynamics and forecasting future demand. Depending on the specific context and availability of data, pharmaceutical companies can utilize these models to inform their strategic planning and decision-making processes. Even in situations where sales data is limited or unavailable.

By considering factors such as prevalence rates, diagnosis rates, and aging populations, epidemiological models accurately describe the drivers of market size and structure. This level of granularity enables forecasters to evaluate the impact of various inputs on sales and anticipate changes in market dynamics. For instance, if disease prevalence varies by age, segmenting the forecast by age cohorts will help the forecaster understand the impact of an aging population on market size.

How J+D Support Epidemiology Forecasting:

Epidemiology forecasting plays a crucial role in understanding disease dynamics and predicting market trends. To enhance this process and gain deeper insights, J+D offers innovative products: Epi+ – part of the FC + suite of software, and EpiCube, to empower forecasters to create accurate and comprehensive forecasts.

EpiCube introduces a three-dimensional perspective to disease analysis by considering factors such as comorbidity, age, sex, biomarkers, and more. This approach enables forecasters to gain a flexible understanding of diseases and their impact on specific patient cohorts. By examining diseases based on these dimensions, EpiCube optimizes market sizing. Particularly in precision medicine, where treatments target specific biomarkers or patient subgroups. This extensive epidemiology database of incidence and prevalence datasets offers access to 9,500 sub-groups and over 250 diseases covering 50 countries, with powerful visualization and dashboards.

Epi+ is a comprehensive pharmaceutical forecasting software specifically designed for independent use. This powerful tool eliminates the need for external specialist support and streamlines the forecasting process. With its user-friendly interface and Excel add-in functionality, Epi+ enables users to create accurate and reliable forecasts for any disease. The software offers various features such as risk analysis, demand analysis, consolidation, and peak share prediction, enhancing forecasting capabilities and facilitating confident decision-making.

When combined, while EpiCube provides a comprehensive understanding of diseases and patient cohorts, Epi+ empowers users to create forecasts using best practice principles and sophisticated modeling techniques. These solutions enhance the approach to epidemiological analysis, to make it more robust, accurate, and efficient. Forecasters can delve deeper into disease analysis, understand market dynamics, and make informed decisions to drive success in the pharmaceutical industry.

Leveraging Technology for Improved Forecasting:

Technological advancements, particularly in AI and machine learning (ML), offer significant opportunities for improving epidemiological forecasting. AI models can leverage big data to predict disease outbreaks and understand their potential behaviour in the future. Furthermore, this rapidly evolving technology has the potential to shorten research and development timelines, identify new treatment options, reduce drug development costs, and enable earlier diagnosis. 

These advancements necessitate the use of good epidemiological models to accurately incorporate the impacts of AI and technology-driven changes in disease management. By employing advanced forecast modeling software, forecasters can better analyse the impact of earlier diagnosis and improved cure rates on market size and patient outcomes.

Challenges and Future Perspectives:

Despite the promise of advanced technologies and the increasing availability of data, challenges persist in leveraging them for epidemiological forecasting. The availability and quality of data vary across countries and diseases. Data protection regulations, such as those in Germany, can pose hurdles in fully utilising available data for disease management and forecasting. Additionally, rare disease populations present a challenge for AI models that rely heavily on big data. However, efforts are being made to identify these smaller populations using AI models, highlighting the potential for future advancements in this area.


Epidemiological forecasting serves as a critical tool in understanding disease trends and planning effective interventions. The availability and quality of data, coupled with advancements in technology have the potential to significantly enhance forecasting accuracy. By employing innovative approaches and leveraging new technology, forecasters can generate more accurate predictions to support business decisions. Whilst challenges remain, the continuous improvement of data sources and technological capabilities offers a promising outlook for the future of epidemiological forecasting.

Author: David James

Image of David James
A respected expert in the field of pharmaceutical forecasting, providing both training and consultancy to solve global forecasting challenges. As founder and CEO, David has led J+D Forecasting to become one of the leading providers of pharmaceutical forecasting solutions to some of the largest brands in the market.

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